This 5-page paper compares and contrasts views held by Roland Mousnier and George Lefebvre in terms of what caused uprising in 17th and 18th century France. This essay examines both the causes, and the roles of the peasants, merchant classes and aristocracies in The Fronde (mid-1600s) and the French Revolution (mid-1700s). Bibliography lists 2 sources.

The History of the Lutheran Church in America

A 6 page paper that explores the changes that the Lutheran Church has undergone since its introduction to America beginning in the 1600s. Discussed are the divisions and reunification that the Lutheran Church in America has experienced during the twentieth century and the differences that still remain between the traditional Lutheran Church and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

Trade Patterns Among the Huron and Iroquois

A 6 page discussion of the trade networks which evolved between the Huron and Iroquois and the French and British invaders of their land. Emphasizes that the particulars of such trade varied considerably with the time period. Concludes that while the Native Americans would definitely be affected by their trade interactions with the Europeans they managed to maintain their own unique cultural identities through the turbulent period of the 1600s and 1700s. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

The Evolution of the Scientific Revolution

An 8 page outline of some of the major steps of the scientific revolution which spanned the Renaissance through the eighteenth century. The author explores the work of some of the most noteworthy scientists of all time but also points out that many discoveries can be attributed to novice hobbyists. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

The Concept Of The Engineer In American Culture Analyzed

This 3 page research paper discusses how the technology of the Industrial Revolution introduced the "engineer" as a modern-day creative artist. Specifically discussed are the evolution of an engineer as the builder of bridges to contemporary genetic scientist. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and James Madison: Views on Powers of Government and the Two Party System

A 5 page discussion of the political views of these three founding fathers. Suggests that a debate between Washington, in particular, and modern day political scientists would reveal many differences. Although admittedly our government has become considerably more complex over time, Washington would undoubtedly still hold to his viewpoints of limited government powers and as to the dangers of a two party political system. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

Photographic History: The Calotype

(5 pp.) The base of a calotype negative, rather than the glass or film to which we have become accustomed, was high quality writing paper. The sheet of paper was carefully selected to have a smooth and uniform texture and, wherever possible, to avoid the watermark. It was offered as the chief alternative to the Daguerreotype and was more popular with amateur photographers, artists, and scientists, who used it, largely because the negative could be corrected with pencil. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

The CIA / American Intellignce During The Cold War And Beyond

5 pages in length. C.I.A. involvement during the Cold War extended far beyond the exploits of heroes in Clancy or Ludlum novels. The apparatus of the intelligence community has extended into each of our lives far beyond 'halting the threat of communism.' Bibliography lists 5 sources.

African Americans: Their Course Through United States History

7 pages in length. Examines major contributions made by African Americans, leaders and heroes in the African American community and the immigration treatments received by the African Americans including how they came to the United States, their treatment and major events experienced by this group. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

The Importance of the Past in Lawrence W. Levine’s “Black Culture and Black Consciousness: Afro-American Folk Thought From Slavery to Freedom”

An 8 page paper which examines how the African-American present culture is influenced by the past, with particular emphasis on the chapters “The Rise of Secular Song” and “A Pantheon of Heroes.” No additional sources are used.

The Wisdom Of Yoda

The wit and wisdom of the character, Yoda, from the Star Wars trilogy is appropriate to many different situations and individuals. This 6 page essay is based on sayings that are credited to Yoda, but are appropriate to the understanding of more modern media representations, ancient tales of heroes and Chinese legends of note. No bibliography is included.

Commodore Isaac Chauncey And The War Of 1812

This 5 page paper discusses some of Chauncey's actions and command at Lakes Erie and Ontario. Chauncey established his main site at Sacket's Harbor by Lake Ontario. His aim was to prevent communication between the British forces along Lake Ontario. He succeeded in doing that although Chauncey is not perceived as a great naval hero. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

Tall Tales

P. McCabe This 5 page paper explores the art of tall tales and what constitutes a tall tale. The original innovator of tall tales is mentioned as is the beginning of tall tales in America. How tall tales begin is discussed, for instance, sometimes the actual deeds of real folk heroes are exaggerated, other times, the character is purely fictional. Those mentioned include Davy Crockett, Daniel Boone, Paul Bunyan, Johnny Appleseed and Pecos Bill. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

The Arpanet: History, Problems and Innovation

5 pages in length. Reviews the history of the Arpanet from its beginnings, the problems it has faced and the innovation it has wrought as a forerunner to the Internet. The myth surrounding the Arpanet is that it was devised as a means to survive a nuclear war. While this is certainly interesting, the truth is that the Arpanet was commissioned by the Department of Defense in 1969. The true purpose of the Arpanet was to save money by linking the computers of scientists and researchers. The writer explains in this well-written paper details regarding the Arpanet. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

George Washington Carver

An 8 page research paper that examines the life of one of America's greatest African-American scientists. He pioneered the field of industrial applications for agricultural products. He derived 118 products, which included a rubber substitute, from various plants typically grown in the South. Carver's list of accomplishments would be extraordinary for anyone. However, what makes this list all the more remarkable is the fact that when Carver was born, it was against the law for him to even learn how to read and write, much less acquire the knowledge to become a master chemist and a scientific pioneer. George Washington Carver was born a slave. Bibliography lists 8 sources.