Microhistory Europe Early 16th Century

A 9 page paper that discusses microhistorical events of the early to mid-16th century by discussing three specific books: Ginzburg's The Cheese and the Worm: The Cosmos of a Sixteenth Century Miller; Davis' The Return of Martin Guerre; and Nalle's Mad for God: Bartolome Sanchez, the Secret Messiah of Cardenete. The paper comments on the topic of religion and oppression found in these microhistorical accounts. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

Impacts to Native Americans In The 16th & 17th Centuries

A 4 page overview of the different approaches to colonization of Spain and Portugal verses England, France, and Holland in the 16th and 17th Centuries. Describes differences in their interactions with Native Americans. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

The European Impact on Eastern North America in the 16th and 17th Centuries: A View of Canadian History

This 9 page paper considers the issue of the introduction of European influences in Canada in the 16th and 17th centuries. This paper attempts to determine if contact with the indigenous communities during this period produced a significant cultural conflict or if attempts were made to achieve a kind of mutual co-existence. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

Latest Developments In Prostheses: Tutorial

An 11 page paper. Artifical limbs have a long history, which some say dates back to ancient Egypt. The beginning field is attributed, however, to a French surgeon in the 16th century. This paper discusses a brief history of prostheses, the reasons individuals may need a prosthesis of some kind; the remarkable advances made since the mid-1940s and especially in the last twenty years, and the probable future developments. Interspersed are tutorial comments to help the student.

War as Engine for Change

A 4 page research paper that examines the history of warfare in the 16th and 17th centuries and argues that war provided an engine for social change during this period. The writer discusses how military changes, such as increased army size, brought lasting social, financial and political change. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

English Prose Writers

A 14 page paper which examines the work of several English prose writers from the 16th and 17th centuries. The writers examined are Sir Francis Bacon, Sir Thomas More, Thomas Hobbes, Samuel Pepys and John Evelyn. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

Nien Cheng’s “Life and Death in Shanghai”

This 6 page report discusses the autobiographical account of Nien Cheng’s experiences during China’s Cultural Revolution. “Life and Death in Shanghai” by Nien Cheng requires that the reader or student be particularly aware of the unique nuance of time and place and how Cheng causes those aspects of the story to be as essential as the actual characters of the book. Cheng’s crime was that she was born into a wealthy, land-owning Chinese family. As a result of her “privileged” background, she was put into solitary confinement and ordered by Red Guards to confess to the crimes they had trumped up against her. Quite simply and without much fanfare . . . she refused. Throughout the book, the reader sees the honesty, intelligence, and perseverance of one woman in the face of horrific torture and oppression. Bibliography lists only the primary source.

War Crimes: Definitions and Perspectives

A 12 page overview of the definitions and perceptions surrounding war crimes. Discusses the Geneva Convention and the Nuremberg Trials and provides numerous examples of historical events which classify as war crimes. Emphasizes that all parties of wartime action are capable of war crimes but that it is the victor which most often records history and determines the occurrence such crimes. Bibliography lists 11 sources.

Some Causes and Effects of the Crusades

A 3 page paper discussing some of the causes and effects of the Crusades. History is filled with record of military conquests and in many cases the administration of tortures in the name of God. The Crusades was a collection of military invasions of Christian holy lands in response to Muslim assumption of control of those lands. Though the first Crusade was nearly 1,000 years ago, the effects of the Crusades are still recognizable today, particularly in religious intolerance. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

Analysis of Three Biographies on Abraham Lincoln:

This 10 page paper analyzes three different biographies on Abraham Lincoln. The biographies all present very different views of the man who was the 16th president of the United States, and in this way presents a very thorough and well-rounded analysis of a very complex man. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

The History of Japanese - Western Relations from 1400 to 1700

This is a 5 page paper discussing Japanese foreign relations with the West between the years 1400 and 1700. The years from 1400 to 1700 in Japan covered three Japanese historical periods: the Muromachi Period (1333-1573); the Azuchi-Momoyama Period (1573-1603); and, the Edo Period (1603-1867) which also included the great eras of the Shogun. While these centuries are generally not known for their great developments in international trade for Japan, there were certain instances in which Chinese and Western trade and influences and relations were introduced into Japan. During the mid 16th century, the Japanese greatly valued Portuguese weaponry which played a large factor in the ongoing warlord conflicts. By the late 16th century, foreign relations and trade had also been established with Britain, Spain and the Dutch who were as interested in the Japanese artisan goods as were the Japanese interested in goods imported from the Americas such as tobacco and sweet potatoes among other goods. Through the relations established with the English, Western shipbuilding and navigation tools were also of great value. During the mid-17th century however, shogun Iemitsu wanted to strengthen Japan by eliminating foreign influence which included further restrictions on Christianity, which had been introduced by the missionaries in the 1500s, a ban on travel outside of Japan, expulsion of foreign trade merchants and a ban on European literature among other restrictions thereby decreasing foreign trade and relations with the West. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

Continuity and Change: 16th-18th Centuries

A 5 page paper which examines the French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution as it involves change. The paper also discusses social classes and general tradition as it relates to social conditions in relationship to continuity. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

Relationship Between Baconian And Cartesian Philosophy During The Scientific Revolution

3 pages in length. The relationship between Baconian and Cartesian philosophy with regard to the scientific revolution of the 16th and 17th centuries reflects the dawning of rational thought over that of theology. As a positivist, Francis Bacon upheld the belief that experience and observation are the two most critical components of knowledge, a pairing he believed eclipsed the dubious aspect of mysticism; by contrast, behind Descartes' principle was the concept of being in touch with such internal aspects as beliefs, ideas, reasoning, hopes, thoughts, memories and temperament. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

Organized Crime in America

In four pages this paper examines the sociopolitical phenomenon of organized crime in America in an overview that includes definition, its development in the United States, its attempts to influence the government, and the organization of organized crime groups after the Prohibition era. Four sources are listed in the bibliography.

War Crimes:

This 8 page paper discusses the history of war crimes and focuses specifically on what factors lead soldiers to commit crimes. This paper discusses specific war criminals as examples. Bibliography lists 10 sources.