Goya: Disasters of War

Francisco de Goya was considered the most influential European artist of his time. Most of his career was spent as artist to the court of Spain so a great deal of his more noted works were portraits done of the various royal personages and families that occupied the throne during Goya's lifetime. In his later years his works were often marked with demons and terror and reflected an anti-religious sentiment. This 13 page paper examines the significance of Goya's life in terms of the print series: Disasters of War. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

Social Changes in Mid Nineteenth Century Europe

This 6 page paper looks at the way that the economic changes in mid nineteenth century Europe resulted in changes in the social structure. The paper includes discussion in the class structure, the long term impact of the industrial revolution and the poor laws. The bibliography cites 4 sources.

The Changing American Family

This 5 page essay describes the changing American family, considering many aspects including gender roles, ethnic variances, longevity, blended families as well as projections for the future. The paper's position is that the traditional nuclear family was a temporary structure and has been replaced by a revised definition mostly brought on by social change. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

Impacts to Native Americans In The 16th & 17th Centuries

A 4 page overview of the different approaches to colonization of Spain and Portugal verses England, France, and Holland in the 16th and 17th Centuries. Describes differences in their interactions with Native Americans. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

The Age Of The Common Man

5 pages in length. The span of years between the 1820s and the 1840s has come to be known as The Age of the Common Man, an historical period in time in which many important changes took place in American society with regard to political, economical and social concerns. Indeed, one of the most critical aspects of this particular era was the fact that political reforms were designed as a means by which to place more power into hands of the common man; however, these designs were not without counter movements that attempted to impede such progress. Religion, too, played an integral role in the overall establishment of social shaping and reformation, as did the changing role of family and women's traditional place within the social structure. Additionally, the growth of immigration and the slave system had made their way to the forefront of American concern. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

A Letter to Simone De Beauvoir on the 50th Anniversary of 'The Second Sex'

A 5 page letter to French philosopher and feminist Simone De Beauvoir on the fiftieth anniversary of the publication of her controversial book, 'The Second Sex,' specifically addressing its continued relevance along with ideas which are no longer applicable in a world of birth control, legalized abortion and the relaxing of social taboos. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

"The Princess of Cleves"

An eight-page paper looking at this seventeenth century novel by Marie de La Fayette. The paper shows how the events of this unabashedly "women's novel" nonetheless contain social criticism and a clear insight into French history in the sixteenth century. Bibliography lists seven sources.

The French Moralists -- Blaise Pascal and François de La Rochefoucauld

This 6 page report discusses François de La Rochefoucauld (1613-80) and Blaise Pascal (1623-62) who were both French, brilliant, and thoroughly involved in what has come to be thought of as the moralist tradition. Each was interested in the nature of human beings and human interaction. Each saw that social realities were of a far greater influence in the majority of people’s lives than any form of religion or faith. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

Jose Maria Eca de Queiros' 'The City & The Mountains' # 2

A 6 page paper that provides an overview of Eca de Queiros's work and the considers the major themes as they apply to Portuguese society of the late 19th century. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

J.H. Rosny/The Death of the Earth

A 6 page analysis of the J.H. Rosny's (a pseudonym for Joseph Henri Boex) science fiction novel La Mort de la Terre (The Death of the Earth). This early twentieth century work has long been neglected in English-speaking countries when examining the evolution of the science fiction/fantasy genre. No additional sources cited.

Alexis and Herve Tocqueville / Contrasts and Comparisons

An 11 page paper exploring the writings of father and son Alexis de Tocqueville and Herve de Tocqueville regarding the French Revolution. Bibliography lists five sources.

The History of the Holy Grail

A 7 page paper discussing the sources from which the theme of the Holy Grail was gathered, and how the theme has changed over time. Sources discussed include the Mabinogion, Chrétien de Troyes, Robert de Boron, the Perlesvaus, the Queste del Saint Graal, and Thomas Malory. Bibliography lists six sources.

Russian Art - From Russian Realism and the Rebel Fourteen to the Post Severe Style Era

This 263 page paper examines the development of art in Russia starting from the 1860’s and the emergence of Russian realism, considering the emergence of the rebellion fourteen and the Peredvizniki, also known as the wanderers. The paper than tracks the development by looking at the development and evolution of Russian impressionism, social realism, socialist realism, Soviet realism, soviet impressionism and the severe style. In all styles the development, influence and manifestation of the style are discussed along with the work of specific artists that produced notable works. Illustrations of the notable works are included. The bibliography cites 69 sources.

The Penitentiary System in Nineteenth Century America

This 3 page paper highlights points from On the Penitentiary System in the United States and Its Application in France by Alexis de Tocqueville and Gustave de Beaumont. The fact that the U.S. was a model country at the time is noted as is the fact that authors examine the concept of isolation and its relevance. Finally, early criminology theory is examined. No additional sources cited.


This paper examines the comments about black people in the United States written by French politician Alexis de Tocqueville in his book, Democracy in America. The paper also compares how the 19th century words of de Toqueville are still true today. Bibliography lists 2 sources.